The conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the contested Nagorno-Karabakh region has simmered for decades. In 2020, the two sides fought a bloody war for territory — one that ended with a fragile Russian-brokered truce.
But clashes erupted again this week — not for the first time since the peace deal — in the disputed region, an Armenian-controlled enclave within the internationally recognized borders of Azerbaijan.
After months of tensions, Armenian media outlets reported air raid sirens and mortar fire in the regional capital of Stepanakert on Tuesday, as Azerbaijan declared an “anti-terrorist” campaign. Local Karabakh authorities accused Azerbaijani forces of hitting civilian areas, saying that at least two people died and 11 were injured.
The attack follows months of anger over an Azerbaijani blockade of the road connecting the region to Armenia, which has disrupted the follow of goods including food and medicine.
Russia is a key ally of Armenia, and Moscow brokered the 2020 truce. But with Russia’s attention invested in its war in Ukraine, attention to Armenia’s security demands appears to have slipped.
Here’s what you need to know about the fight over Nagorno-Karabakh, the longest-running conflict in the post-Soviet sphere.